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Skincare & ingredients glossary

#  |  A  |  B  |  C  |  D  |  E  |  F  |  G  |  H  |  I  |  J  |  K  |  L  |  M  |  N  |  O  |  P  |  Q  |  R  |  S  |  T  |  U  |  V  |  W  |  Y  |  Z

#

10-hydroxydecanoic acid: See royal jelly acid.
18-MEA: A highly nutritive lipid compound that promotes smoothness and shine for hair.

A

acerola (Malpighia emarginata): A Caribbean berry that is one of the world's richest natural sources of vitamin C; helps brighten uneven skin tone.
Actinidia chinensis: See kiwi.
Aesculus hippocastanum: See horse chestnut.
African whitewood tree (Enantia chlorantha) bark: Tropical wood extract that helps minimise sebum.
alanine: An amino acid that occurs in proteins and is used as a skin conditioner.
alcloxa: A derivative of allantoin; used for its soothing, anti-irritant properties.
alcohol: Helps visibly tighten pores and control excess oil.
algin: Obtained from brown seaweed; used as a stabiliser and thickener.
allantoin: Used as an anti-irritant and skin conditioner.
Aloe barbadensis: See aloe vera
aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis): Extracted from the leaves of the aloe plant; used as a skin softener, anti-irritant, and moisture replenisher.
alpha-arbutin: Technologically advanced brightener used to help reduce the appearance of discolouration caused by sun and age and to promote more radiant skin tone.
alpha hydroxy acid (AHA): An exfoliator that helps encourage natural cell turnover rate on the surface of the skin to reveal the younger-looking skin underneath.
amino acids: Building blocks of protein that enhance moisture-retention and absorption. Examples include: arginine, serine, glutamic acid, glycine and lysine.
amur cork tree (Phellodendron amurense) bark: Used for its clarifying effects.
Amygdalus dulcis: See sweet almond.
antioxidant: A substance that helps protect the skin against damage caused by free radicals (unstable oxygen molecules). Free radicals can lead to premature signs of ageing by causing cellular damage and disrupting the structure of other molecules. Examples of antioxidants include: alpha lipoic acid, coenzyme Q10, soy isoflavones, resveratrol, and vitamins C and E.
Anthemis nobilis: See chamomile.
apple (Pyrus malus) fruit: Extract of the apple fruit, helps fight free radicals, soothe and condition skin.
apricot (Prunus armeniaca): Finely milled apricot seeds; used to exfoliate and soften skin.
Arctium lappa: See burdock.
argan (Argania spinosa) oil: Antioxidant, emollient oil extracted from the nut of the argan tree, a species of hearty vegetation endemic to North Africa.
arginine: An amino acid that has skin-softening and conditioning properties.
arnica (Arnica montana): Derived from the dried flowers of the arnica plant; used for its soothing, anti-irritant properties.
arginine cocoate: An amino-based surfactant derived from coconut oil.
artichoke (Cynara scolymus) leaf: Skin-conditioning agent with pore-tightening properties.
Artocarpus lakoocha: See lakoocha.
ascorbyl glucoside: A stabilised form of vitamin C; used as an antioxidant and skin brightener.
ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate: A stabilised form of vitamin C; used as an antioxidant and skin brightener.
astringent: A solution that removes oil from the skin and visibly tightens pores.
Aureobasidium pullulans: See black yeast.
Avena sativa: See oat.
avocado (Persea gratissima) oil: A skin softener and conditioner used in formulations as an emollient; rich in protein and vitamins.

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B

baking soda (sodium bicarbonate): Cleansing agent that helps dissolve dirt and sebum; also provides gentle exfoliation.
beeswax: From virgin bees; used primarily as an emulsifier.
Bellis perennis: See daisy.
bentonite: A high-quality white volcanic clay; used for its absorptive and purifying properties.
beta-glucan: Beta glucans are found in cellulose and in other natural sources such as oats and barley. Helps skin retain moisture and fights the look of fine lines. Skin-conditioning and soothing.
beta hydroxy acid: An exfoliator that is used to treat acne, wrinkles and premature signs of ageing caused by UV exposure. Salicylic acid is a betahydroxy acid.
betaine: Contains a moisturising amino acid derived from beets.
biosaccharide gum-1: A skin-conditioning agent and humectant derived from sorbitol.
biotin: See vitamin B7.
bisabolol: Derived from chamomile. Moisturising, soothing and brightening.
black pearl extract (hydrolyzed conchiolin protein): Peptide compound derived from outermost layer of pearl; protein-rich structure contains conditioning properties for both skin and hair.
black yeast (Aureobasidium pullulans) ferment: Source of beta-glucan. Moisturising.
boosters: Products that feature concentrated ingredients and target specific skincare issues.
botanical: An ingredient or product derived from plants.
brighteners: Products that help combat visible dark spots and discolouration. Botanical brighteners include licorice and mulberry; alpha-arbutin is a stable lab-developed form of the brightener arbutin.
brown algae (Cladosiphon novae-caledoniae): This Japanese algae extract contains a polysaccharide called fucoidan, which helps skin revitalisation and supports collagen and elasticity.
burdock (Arctium lappa) root: A mineral-rich plant ingredient used to soothe skin and promote healthier-feeling scalp and hair.
Butyl avocadate: A derivative of avocado (Persea Grattisima) oil. Used as a skin conditioner. Can help control blemishes by regulating sebum.
Butyrospermum parkii: See shea butter.

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C

caffeine: A stimulant; helps revitalise skin; helps encourage circulation; helps visibly tighten skin.
calcium pantothenate: A derivative of pantothenic acid, also known as vitamin B5; found in royal jelly; used as an emollient.
Calendula officinalis: See marigold.
Camellia sinensis: See green tea.
camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) fruit and seed extracts: Derived from the camu-camu fruit and its seeds; one of the greatest concentrations of naturally occurring vitamin C in the world. Seed extracts are also rich in polyphenols to condition the skin.
candelilla wax: Obtained from the candelilla plant; used to protect the skin against moisture loss.
Capsicum frutescens: Derived from the chili plant; invigorates the scalp and skin.
caramel: Derived from sugar. Used for its soothing properties and as a colouring agent.
Centaurea cyanus: See cornflower.
ceramides: Found naturally in the skin, ceramides form a protective barrier to help reduce moisture loss. Botanical ceramides from wheat and soy can help skin stay hydrated.
chameleon leaf (Houttuynia cordata): Used for its purifying and revitalising properties.
Chamomilla recutita (matricaria): See chamomile.
chamomile German (Chamomilla recutita (matricaria)) Roman (Anthemis nobilis): The extract from the flowers of the plant; has calming and soothing properties. German chamomile flower and leaf extract is used for its hydrating, soothing and astringent properties. Roman chamomile flower extract is used for its hydrating and soothing properties.
chlorella: Derived from green algae; used as a skin conditioner and antioxidant.
Chinese skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis): Extracted from the root of the plant. A member of the mint family used to clarify skin.
citric acid: An alpha hydroxy acid and astringent with antioxidant properties; used to help skin maintain its natural pH level or adjust the pH of a product.
Citrus medica limonum: See lemon.
Citrus reticulata: See tangerine.
Citrus unshiu: See satsuma mandarin orange.
coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinone): An antioxidant that occurs naturally in skin; levels decrease after the age of 30. It helps skin defend itself against free radicals and visible signs of ageing, including fine lines, loss of elasticity and firmness.
coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil: Emollient oil expressed from coconut kernels, a moisturising surfactant and emollient.
Cocos nucifera: See coconut.
collagen: Helps reduce water loss in the skin by forming a protective barrier, resulting in softer, smoother-looking skin.
comfrey (Symphytum officinale): A plant source of allantoin; used as an anti-irritant and skin soother.
cork oak (Quercus suber) bark: Derived from the bark of the cork oak. Helps smooth skin.
cornflower (Centaurea cyanus): Derived from the flower of the plant; used for its smoothing and soothing properties.
Crambe abyssinica seed oil: Oil derived from seeds of Crambe abyssinica; botanical moisturizer: skin and hair conditioning agent.
cucumber (Cucumis sativus): Extracted from the pulp of a cucumber; used for its soothing and moisture binding properties.
Cucumis sativus: See cucumber.
cyanocobalamin: See vitamin B12.
Cymbopogon schoenanthus: See lemongrass.
Cynara scolymus: See artichoke.

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D

daisy (Bellis perennis): Derived from the daisy flower; used for its brightening properties.
dihydroxypropyl arginine HCl: Amino-based skin conditioner; helps moisturise and soften.
dimethicone: A silicone-based polymer that functions as a skin protectant and is also used for its smooth, non-greasy feel.
disodium ascorbyl sulfate: Derived from vitamin C; used as an antioxidant and preservative.

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E

elastin: A protein found in the dermis that keeps skin from sagging and wrinkling; helps maintain skin's elasticity and firmness.
emollient: A substance that conditions, moisturises, softens and helps to prevent water loss in the skin.
emulsifier: Any substance used to assist in the production of an emulsion.
emulsion: A substance formed when two or more unmixable liquids become homogenized. Most oils form emulsions with water.
Enantia chlorantha: See African whitewood tree.
Equisetum arvense: See horsetail.
eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus): Derived from the leaves of the eucalyptus tree; used for its cooling, refreshing, aromatic properties.
evening primrose (Oenothera biennis) oil: Rich in gammalinoleic acid, which encourages skin's barrier function and helps hydrate and soothe skin.

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F

Flor de Aceite (Flower of the Oil): Premier-quality olive oil that isn't pressed but instead drips from the crushed fruit naturally. It takes more than twice as many olives to produce Flor de Aceite as it does to produce the first cold press.
Fomes officinalis: See mushroom.
fucoidan: A nutrient-rich extract of Japanese brown seaweed that supports naturally occurring levels of hyaluronic acid to promote suppleness.

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G

Ganoderma lucidum: See reishi mushroom.
germanium (repagermanium): A stable, lab-synthesised form of an element found widely in nature, including sources such as ginseng and aloe. Skin-conditioning.
ginseng (Panax ginseng): The root extract is used for its soothing and softening properties.
glycerin: An emollient and humectant derived from vegetable oils that helps skin retain moisture.
Glycine soja: See soy.
glycolic acid: An alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) used to help maintain natural pH levels and gently exfoliate surface skin cells.
Glycyrrhiza glabra: See licorice.
grape (Vitis vinifera) seed: An antioxidant that helps fight damaging free radicals that can cause premature signs of ageing.
grape (Vitis vinifera) seed oil: Emollient oil and skin-conditioner that contains antioxidants to fight visible signs of ageing.
grapefruit (Citrus grandis) peel: Citrus fruit extract used as a skin-conditioner.
great burnet (ziyu glycoside I): Extracted from the great burnet, an herbaceous perennial plant native to cool, northern regions of Europe, North America and Asia. Used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. This skin-conditioning ingredient is the source of ziyu glycoside I, a saponin. Saponins have been shown to be soothing and to have an antioxidant effect.
green tea (Camellia sinensis): Tea plant native to Asia that helps fight free radicals; known for its antioxidant and anti-irritant properties.
Grifola frondosa: See maitake mushroom.

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H

hinoki: A type of Japanese cedarwood, touted for its natural water resistance.
honey: A natural substance created by bees; has softening and moisturising effects on skin.
horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum): Derived from the seeds of the plant; used as an astringent to help soothe skin.
horsetail (Equisetum arvense): A perennial plant, also called "scouring rush." Its extract is used for its astringent, softening and strengthening properties.
Houttuynia cordata: See chameleon leaf.
humectant: Ingredient that attracts water (hydrophilic) and helps draw moisture to the skin.
hyaluronic acid: A protein; used as an excellent skin conditioner and humectant, it helps prevent skin dehydration.
hydrogenated castor oil: A vegetable oil derived from the castor bean; used as an emollient to condition and soothe skin.
hydrogenated coconut oil: The solidified oil expressed from coconuts; used as a foaming agent and emollient.
hydrolyzed egg shell membrane (ESM): Proteins and peptides derived from egg shell membrane help firm and hydrate the skin, as well as help protect against environmental stress.
Hypericum perforatum: See St. John's Wort.

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I

iron oxides: Natural oxides of iron (iron combined with oxygen); pigments are used to enhance colours in cosmetics.
isoflavones: Antioxidant-rich phytoestrogens (plant hormones), usually derived from soybeans; used to promote moisture and help fight visible damage caused by free radicals.
Isodonis japonicus leaf/stalk: Japanese botanical; skin-conditioning.

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J

jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis): Extracted from the desert shrub; used as a moisturiser and emollient.

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K

kaolin: A fine white clay powder; used to absorb water and oil secreted by the skin, including excess sebum.
kiwi (Actinidia chinensis) fruit: Extract of the kiwi fruit, helps fight free radicals, soothe and condition skin.
kudzu (Pueraria lobata) root: Extract of the kudzu root; this Asian botanical helps brighten skin for a more even-looking complexion.

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L

lactobacillus/pear juice ferment filtrate: Contains alpha hydroxy acid to help refine and exfoliate skin.
lactic acid: An alphahydroxy acid (AHA) derived from sugarcane or milk; used to gently exfoliate dead skin cells.
lakoocha (Artocarpus lakoocha) wood: Extract from the wood of this tropical fruit tree is a skin-conditioning agent and source of the antioxidant oxyresveratrol.
lanolin: An emollient derived from sheep's wool; used to condition skin and boost moisture.
Lavandula augustifolia: See lavender.
lavender (Lavandula augustifolia): Extracted from the flower; known for its aromatic and anti-irritant properties.
lemon (Citrus medica limonum): A citrus fruit used in skincare for its astringent properties.
lemongrass (Cymbopogon schoenanthus): Used for its purifying properties.
licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra): Derived from the root of the plant; used as a brightener and skin soother.
licorice (dipotassium glycyrrhizate) (stearyl glycyrrhetinate): Derived from the root of the plant; used as a skin soother.
Limnanthes alba: See meadowfoam.

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M

macadamia (Macadamia ternifolia): An emollient used in skincare for its soothing and conditioning properties.
magnesium ascorbyl phosphate: See vitamin C.
magnesium sulfate: Also known as Epsom salts; used to help soothe, soften and condition skin; also used as a thickener in cosmetics.
magnolia (Magnolia obovata): Derived from the plant's bark; used to soothe skin.
maitake mushroom (Grifola frondosa) fruiting body: Extracted from the maitake mushroom, also known as the 'hen-of-the-woods.' This skin-conditioning ingredient is a natural source of beta-glucan, which moisturises and soothes.
Malpighia glabra; Malpighia emarginata: See acerola.
marigold (Calendula officinalis) flower: Extracted from the flower of the plant; contains carotenoids and saponin. Used for its soothing and hydrating properties.
Matrixyl® 3000: A powerful wrinkle-fighter containing peptides that uses messenger molecules to help promote elasticity and tone.
meadowfoam (Limnanthes alba): ): The emollient-rich, non-greasy oil derived from this plant resists oxidation to help prevent moisture loss in skin.
menthol: A natural cooling agent derived from peppermint.
mevalonolactone: Form of mevalonic acid; helps protect skin's moisture barrier.
mica: A light-diffusing earth mineral; used as a pigment in cosmetics.
moisturizer: A substance able to hydrate and protect the skin and prevent dryness.
Morus alba: See mulberry.
mulberry (Morus alba) root: Extracted from the roots of the tree; used for its brightening properties to help reduce the appearance of skin discolouration.
mushroom (Fomes officinalis): This extract from one of the longest-living mushrooms in the world, known to survive only in old-growth forests, is a skin-conditioning agent with pore-tightening properties.
Myrciaria dubia: See camu-camu.
myristic acid: A naturally occurring acid; used as a foaming agent.
myristyl lactate: A light moisturising emollient; used as a skin conditioner.

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N

nanotechnology: Molecular-sized reduction of key ingredients to promote their delivery, performance and other qualities. One nanometer equals one-millionth of a millimeter.
Nasturtium officinale: See watercress.
neem (melia azadirachta) leaf extract: derived from the Neem tree; known for its skin brightening and soothing properties.
niacinamide: See vitamin B3.

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O

oat (Avena sativa): Grain extract; used to help soothe skin and improve skin's firmness.
Oenothera biennis: See evening primrose.
Olea europaea: See olive leaf and olive oil.
olive (Olea europaea) leaf: Rich in antioxidants; helps protect, firm, nourish and revitalise sun-damaged skin.
olive (Olea europaea) oil: Antioxidant-rich, emollient oil; helps fight damage caused by free radicals to protect, condition and seal moisture into skin without clogging pores.
Oryza sativa: See rice germ.
oxyresveratrol: See lakoocha wood.

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P

Paeonia albiflora; Paeonia suffruticosa: See peony.
palm kernel (Sodium palm kernelate): A natural oil derived from the seeds of palm trees or other plants; often used as a surfactant in soaps.
palmitic acid: Obtained from palm oil; used as a surfactant.
palmitoyl oligopeptide: Amino-based peptide that supports elasticity to encourage younger-looking skin.
Panax ginseng: See ginseng.
panthenol: See vitamin B5.
peach (Prunus persica) leaf: Extract of the peach leaf, helps fight free radicals, soothe and condition skin.
peony (Paeonia albiflora; Paeonia suffruticosa): Derived from the root of the plant; used as a skin brightener and conditioning agent.
peptides: A compound consisting of two or more amino acids, the building blocks of protein. They help support elasticity to encourage younger-looking skin.
perilla (Perilla ocymoides): Derived from the leaves and seeds of the plant; used as an anti-irritant and skin conditioner.
Persea gratissima: See avocado.
pH: Potential hydrogen; pH is the scale used to measure acidity and alkalinity. Acids have a pH below 7.0, and alkalis (bases) have a pH above 7.0. Human skin is typically slightly acidic, with a healthy pH level generally ranging from 4.5 to 6.
Phellodendron amurense: See amur cork tree.
placental extract: Derived from animal placentas and a rich source of nutrients, amino acids and proteins; conditions and softens skin.
hydrolyzed platycarya strobilacea fruit: platycarya strobilacea is a small deciduous tree native to eastern Asia, related to the walnut family. It produces brown, cone-like fruits that are a rich source of ellagic acid, a natural phenol antioxidant. Helps promote collagen and decrease the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles.
polyglutamic acid: A humectant amino acid polymer (gamma-polyglutamic acid); used to promote smoothness and elasticity.
polyquaternium-10: Conditioning, moisturising, anti-static agent.
pomegranate (Punica granatum): This extract of the pomegranate fruit is a skin-conditioning agent with antioxidant properties.
Portulaca oleracea: See purslane.
potassium DNA: The potassium salt of DNA; used as a protein to condition the skin.
protease: An enzyme that helps dissolve amino acid bonds; helps exfoliate skin's surface by dissolving surface dead skin cells.
Prunus armeniaca: See apricot.
Prunus persica: See peach.
Pueraria lobata: See kudzu.
Punica granatum: See pomegranate.
purslane (Portulaca oleracea): Extracted from common purslane, an edible succulent plant that grows widely in various regions throughout the world. It contains more omega-3 fatty acids than any other leafy green. Used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. This skin-conditioning ingredient is soothing.
pyrodoxine HCI (vitamin B6): See vitamin B6.
Pyrus cydonia: See quince.
Pyrus malus: See apple.

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Q

quince (Pyrus cydonia): Derived from the seed of the plant. Used as an emollient, thickener and emulsifier.
Quercus suber: See cork oak.

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R

raspberry (Rubus idaeus) fruit: Extract of the raspberry fruit, helps fight free radicals, soothe and condition skin.
reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lucidum) stem: Extracted from the reishi mushroom, used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine. This skin-conditioning ingredient is a natural source of beta-glucan, which moisturises and soothes.
repagermanium: See germanium.
resveratrol: A polyphenol antioxidant found in the skin of red grapes, cocoa, peanuts and other natural sources. It fights skin ageing by protecting its barrier.
retinyl palmitate (vitamin A): A form of vitamin A that is used to promote natural cell turnover, elasticity and suppleness to minimise the appearance of fine lines.
rice bran (Oryza sativa) oil: Antioxidant, emollient rich oil extracted from the outer layer of rice grains. Rich in vitamin E as well as oleic and linoleic acids, it helps soothe, protect, moisturise and nourish skin.
rice germ (Oryza sativa) oil: This emollient oil is an excellent skin conditioner and antioxidant.
Rosa centifolia: See rose.
Rosa damascena: See rose.
rose (Rosa centifolia) water: Used as an astringent.
rose (Rosa damascena): Helps hydrate, soften and nurture dry and irritated skin.
rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaf oil: Extracted from the leaves of the plant; used for its toning and invigorating properties as well as for its refreshing fragrance.
Rosmarinus officinalis: See rosemary.
royal jelly acid (10-hydroxydecanoic acid): The fatty acid derived from royal jelly, the highly nutritive substance secreted by worker bees to feed the queen bee; used for its moisturising and revitalising properties.
royal jelly: A highly nutritive substance secreted by worker bees to feed the queen bee; used for its moisturising and revitalising properties.
rutin: A bioflavonoid used for its antioxidant and invigorating properties.

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S

sage (Salvia officinalis): Extracted from the leaves of the plant; used for its purifying and fragrant properties.
Salix alba: See willow.
Salvia officinalis: See sage.
sandalwood (Santalum album): Extracted from the wood; used for its aromatic, woodsy scent.
Sapindus mukurossi: See soap nut tree.
saponin: A compound derived from sugars that occurs in plants such as soapbark or soap nut; characterized by its ability to foam in water. Used chiefly as a foaming agent, emulsifier and detergent.
satsuma mandarin orange (Citrus unshiu): A variety of the mandarin orange used to visibly tighten pores and to brighten and revitalise skin.
Scutellaria baicalensis: See Chinese skullcap.
sea salt: Used as a skin conditioner and softener.
serine: A hydrophilic (water-attracting) amino acid used to help skin and hair retain its moisture balance.
sesame (Sesame indicum) seed oil: Emollient oil extracted from sesame seeds.
Sesame indicum: See sesame.
shea (Butyrospermum parkii) butter: Extracted from the nuts of the karité tree, this emollient is naturally rich in vitamins and antioxidants.
shell ginger (alpinia uralensis) leaf water: extracted from the leaves of the shell ginger plant; known for its skin conditioning properties.
silica: An earth mineral; used to condition and smooth skin, fill in visible fine lines and wrinkles, and to help absorb excess oil in skin; also used as a carrier for emollients to improve the feel of skin.
Simmondsia chinensis: See jojoba.
small-leafed lime (Tilia cordata) flower: Extracted from the flower of the plant, contains tannin and flavonoids. This invigorating botanical is used for its hydrating and astringent properties.
soap nut tree (Sapindus mukurossi): Contains saponins, which deliver natural cleansing and foaming actions.
sodium bicarbonate: See baking soda.
sodium acetylated hyaluronate: Derivative of sodium hyaluronate. Excellent skin-softening and moisturising agent. Due to its low molecular weight, it absorbs more quickly than regular hyaluronic acid.
sodium hyaluronate: The sodium salt of hyaluronic acid, which is a protein occurring in the skin. An excellent skin conditioner and humectant, it helps prevent skin dehydration.
sodium lactate: The salt of lactic acid; used as a skin conditioner.
sodium palm kernelate: See palm kernel.
sodium PCA: A natural component of skin and a humectant and emollient; one of the best moisture binders available.
sodium riboflavin phosphate: See Vitamin B2.
sorbitol: A humectant that helps skin feel smoother and less dry.
soy (Glycine soja): Extracted from the bean; contains botanical ceramides used to protect and moisturise skin.
squalane: Derived from olive pits; used as an emollient and antioxidant-rich skin protectant.
stearyl glycyrrhetinate: See licorice.
St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) flower/leaf/stem: Used for its soothing and astringent properties.
sucrose (sugar): Used as a skin conditioner and humectant.
sulfur: An essential component to all living cells; used as a skin purifier to fight acne blemishes and reduce flakiness.
surfactant: Any substance that aids in emulsifying oils and suspending dirt on the skin, allowing them to be easily rinsed away.
sweet almond (Amygdalus dulcis) oil: Extracted from the seeds; used as an emollient.
Swertia japonica: Native to Japan; extract of flowering plant is a skin conditioner used to help promote circulation of skin around the hair follicle.
Symphytum officinale: See comfrey.

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T

talc: An earth mineral used as a texturiser in cosmetics and also to help make them opaque.
tangerine (Citrus reticulata): Citrus fruit extract used as a skin-conditioner.
thiamine HCl: See Vitamin B1.
Thymus serpillum: See wild thyme.
Tilia cordata: See small-leafed lime.
titanium dioxide: An earth mineral used as a pigment in cosmetics.
tocopherol: See vitamin E.
tocotrienols: A stable form of vitamin E; tocopherols and tocotrienols make up the vitamin E family; used as an antioxidant and skin conditioner.
trehalose: A moisture-binding sugar molecule that helps plants survive long periods without water; used to protect skin against moisture loss.
Triticum vulgare: See wheat germ.
Tussilago farfara: See coltsfoot.

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U

ubiquinone: See coenzyme Q10.
urea: Used for water binding and moisturising properties.

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V

vitamin A: See retinyl palmitate.
vitamin B1 (thiamine HCl): Member of the B complex family of vitamins. Skin-conditioning.
vitamin B2 (sodium riboflavin phosphate): Member of the B complex family of vitamins. Promotes moisture in the skin and fights the appearance of wrinkles. Skin-conditioning.
vitamin B3 (niacinamide): Member of the B complex family of vitamins. Brightening, promotes moisture retention and elasticity, and helps control excess sebum to clarify skin.
vitamin B5 (panthenol): Member of the B complex family of vitamins. A moisturising humectant and emollient.
vitamin B6 (pyrodoxine HCl): Member of the B complex family of vitamins. Skin-conditioning.
vitamin B7 (biotin): Member of the B complex family of vitamins. Skin-conditioning.
vitamin B12 (cyanacobalamin): Member of the B complex family of vitamins. Soothing; supports skin strength. Skin-conditioning.
vitamin C (magnesium ascorbyl phosphate, ascorbyl tetraisopalmitate, disodium ascorbyl sulfate, ascorbyl glycoside): A free radical-fighting antioxidant and collagen-supporter used to help fight visible fine lines and even out skin tone.
vitamin E (tocopherol): Used as an antioxidant and skin conditioner.
Vitis vinifera: See grape seed.

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W

watercress: Used for its nourishing properties.
wheat protein: Used as an emollient and water-binder.
wheat (Triticum vulgare) germ: An antioxidant with high vitamin E content.
wild thyme (Thymus serpillum): Used for its tonic and fragrant properties.
willow (Salix alba): Extracted from the bark of the tree; used for its soothing and tonic properties.

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Y

yeast: Used as a water-binding agent and antioxidant.

Z

zinc PCA: Helps control excess sebum to keep skin clarified.
zinc oxide: An earth mineral that provides protection from the sun and other irritants.
ziyu glycoside I: See great burnet.

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